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2010年11月16日 (火)

「平成の船中八策」を実現する市民の会、その192[欧州連合における(再生可能エネルギー開発問題①)」

今度は、欧州連合における「再生可能エネルギー開発問題」に付いて勉強して行きたいと思います。

欧州連合加盟国の再生可能エネルギー開発―開発の現状と促進策―
欧州における新エネルギー政策等に関する調査報告書
平成14 年度経済産業省委託業務新エネルギー等導入促進基礎調査
平成15 年3 月日欧産業協力センター

まえがき
この報告書は、経済産業省の委託により、当センターが欧州連合(EU)加盟国の新エネルギー開発利用について調査し、取り纏めたものである。
欧州連合加盟国は、1997 年12 月に京都で開催された気候変動枠組条約第3 回締約国会議(COP3)で合意された温暖化ガスの排出削減目標値(2008~2012 年までに、1990 年排出レベルから欧州諸国平均で8%削減する)を達成するために、欧州委員会の主導のもと、省エネルギー努力と併せて、新エネルギーとりわけ再生可能エネルギーの開発に真剣に取り組んでいる。

欧州では、再生可能エネルギーの開発は、単に地球温暖化の防止に寄与するだけでなく、エネルギーの自給率向上とエネルギー供給の安定、農業の振興、新しい産業の創立、そして新規雇用の拡大に寄与するとの認識が高まっている。
このような認識のもとに、欧州各国は、再生可能エネルギーの開発を促進するため、技術
開発努力をはじめ、グリーン証書制度、固定価格買取制度の導入や環境税の導入など、さまざまな施策を講じている。
これらの努力の結果は、目を見張るものがある。その具体的内容については本報告書の各章で紹介しているが、例えば、風力開発分野では欧州諸国が世界の風力開発の2/3 を占めるに至っており、中でも、ドイツ(世界第1 位の開発量)、スペイン(同世界第3 位)、デンマーク(同世界第4 位)の活発な風力開発は、特筆に値する。
この結果、これらの諸国には世界的風力タービンメーカーが出現している。世界の10 大タ
ービンメーカーのうち、デンマークのメーカー3 社(ベスタス社(1 位)、ミーコン社(3 位)、
ボーナス社(6 位))、ドイツのメーカー3 社(エネルコン社(2 位)、ノルデクス社(7 位)、リパ
ワー社(10 位))スペインのメーカー2 社(ガメサ社(5 位)、WADE(8 位))計8 社が欧州勢で
ある。

欧州における政府の施策、産業界の努力の成果は、欧州と同様な課題を抱えるわが国にとっても有益な示唆を与えるものと考える。本報告が、わが国の新エネルギー導入の一助にとなれば幸いである。
平成15 年3 月 日欧産業協力センター 事務局長 種岡 弘明

目 次 

まえがき
第1章 再生可能エネルギー開発2001 年展望··························································· 1
1-1 はじめに····························································································1
1-2 風力··································································································1
1-3 液体バイオ燃料···················································································3
1-4 小水力·······························································································5
1-5 地熱··································································································7
1-5-1 地熱発電························································································ 7
1-5-2 熱源としての利用············································································ 9
1-6 太陽································································································10
1-6-1 太陽光発電(PV) ······································································· 10
1-6-2 太陽熱利用··················································································· 12
1-7 バイオガス·······················································································13
1-8 木質系燃料·······················································································15
1-9 まとめ·····························································································16
第2章 欧州委員会の再生可能エネルギー開発支援·············································· 19
――離陸のためのキャンペーン――
2-1 はじめに··························································································19
2-2 RES 供給率100%を目指す生物保護区(スペイン)·································20
2-3 化石燃料を使用しない都市(スウェーデン)··········································24
2-4 持続可能総合エネルギー開発 (イタリア)··············································27
2-5 住民参加のプロジェクト(ベルギー)···················································30
2-6 21 世紀のエネルギー行動計画 (オーストリア)·······································34
2-7 エネルギー転換:2030 年にRES 供給率100%(ドイツ) ························38
2-8 ポーイス州のRES 開発 (英国) ···························································42
2-9 バレンシア自治州の風力開発(スペイン)·············································46
2-10 太陽の都市エシハ (スペイン)·····························································49
2-11 太陽発電による農村電化 (インド)·······················································53
2-12 まとめ·····························································································57
第3章 再生可能エネルギー開発事例···································································· 58
3-1 世界における風力開発の最新動向·························································58
3-1-1 はじめに······················································································· 58
3-1-2 風力タービンの大型化と発電コスト·················································· 58
3-1-3 運転及び補修コスト(O&M コスト)················································ 59
3-1-4 世界の10 大風力タービン・メーカー················································ 59
3-1-5 洋上風力······················································································· 60
3-1-6 学習効果······················································································· 61
3―1―7 ミニウインドタービン市場······························································ 61
3-1-8 電力系統への影響·········································································· 61
3-1-9 まとめ·························································································· 62
3-2 洋上風力発電所ホーンズ・リーフ(Horns Rev) ········································62
3-2-1 はじめに······················································································· 62
3-2-2 建設主体と建設地点······································································· 62
3-2-3 設備の概要··················································································· 63
3-2-4 洋上変電所の概要·········································································· 66
3-2-5 経済性·························································································· 66
3-2-6 まとめ·························································································· 67
3-3 洋上ウインドファームの送電設備·························································67
3-3-1 はじめに······················································································· 67
3-3-2 風力発電設備の連結と送電······························································ 67
3-3-3 連結線と連系線の電圧···································································· 68
3-3-4 裕度問題······················································································· 68
3-3-5 交流連系か直流連系か···································································· 69
3-3-6 直流ケーブル方式にも2つのオプション············································ 69
3-3-7 まとめ·························································································· 70
3-4 風力開発の将来予測···········································································71
3-4-1 はじめに················································································································ 71
3-4-2 風力12 の研究目的········································································· 71
3-4-3 風力資源と電力事情······································································· 72
3-4-4 12%シナリオの概要······································································· 74
3-4-5 他技術との比較············································································· 76
3-4-6 12%達成の可能性·········································································· 77
3-4-7 環境面ヘの貢献············································································· 77
3-4-8 まとめ·························································································· 78
3-5 廃棄物からクリーンな燃料の製造·························································78
3-5-1 はじめに······················································································· 78
3-5-2 嫌気性微生物による分解/ガス化····················································· 79
3-5-3 嫌気性微生物分解の利点································································· 79
3-5-4 自動車燃料用バイオガスの製造························································ 80
3-5-5 チューリッヒ市の廃棄物リサイクル·················································· 80
3-5-6 コンポガスの製造·········································································· 80
3-5-7 まとめ·························································································· 81
3-6 太陽熱利用地域暖房プロジェクト·························································81
3-6-1 はじめに······················································································· 81
3-6-2 欧州における太陽熱利用································································· 81
3-6-3 大規模太陽熱地域暖房···································································· 82
3-6-4 大規模太陽熱温水システムの利点····················································· 82
3-6-5 欧州委員会支援プロジェクト(EU-Thermie Project) ······························ 82
3-6-6 まとめ·························································································· 83
第4章 現地調査報告························································································· 84
4-1 はじめに··························································································84
〔第一回現地訪問調査〕
4-2 ベルギー··························································································84
4-2-1 再生可能エネルギー開発の現状························································ 85
4-2-2 再生可能エネルギー開発計画··························································· 86
4-2-3 グリーン証書制度の導入································································· 86
4-2-4 グリーン電力価格とグリーン電力発電者の収入··································· 87
4-2-5 ベルギーのグリーン証書制度の問題点··············································· 88
4-3 スウェーデン····················································································89
4-3-1 エネルギー政策············································································· 89
4-3-2 再生可能エネルギー開発の現状························································ 90
4-3-3 助成策·························································································· 90
4-3-4 グリーン証書制度の導入································································· 90
4-4 バッテンファル電力会社の風力開発······················································95
4-4-1 スウェーデンの風力資源································································· 95
4-4-2 バッテンファル社の風力開発研究····················································· 95
4-5 再生可能エネルギー100%供給を目指す“ゴットランド”·························98
4-5-1 ゴットランド島の概況···································································· 98
4-5-2 再生可能エネルギー開発政策··························································· 98
4-5-3 主要な再生可能エネルギー開発プロジェクトの紹介····························· 99
4-6 フィンランド··············································································································103
4-6-1 エネルギー需給とエネルギー政策··································································· 103
4-6-2 環境対策·············································································································· 104
4-6-3 電力需給······················································································106
4-7 まとめ··························································································································106
〔第二回現地訪問調査〕
4-8 スペインにおける風力開発······················································································107
4-8-1 はじめに·············································································································· 107
4-8-2 ナバーラ地方のエネルギー事情······································································· 107
4-8-3 EHN 社の創業時プロジェクト············································································ 108
4-8-4 野心的な風力開発計画······················································································· 108
4-8-5 風力産業の成立··································································································· 109
4-8-6 成功の要因·········································································································· 109
4-8-7 バレンシア自治州の風力開発··········································································· 111
4-8-7-1 バレンシアのエネルギー事情··················································· 111
4-8-7-2 風力開発計画の策定······························································· 111
4-8-7-3 風力開発による経済効果························································· 113
4-9 イタリアにおける風力開発······················································································113
4-9-1 はじめに·············································································································· 113
4-9-2 開発促進のための施策······················································································· 114
4-9-3 キエティ県のRES 開発······················································································ 114
4-9-3-1 キエティ県のエネルギー事情··································································· 114
4-9-3-2 持続可能な総合開発計画·········································································· 115
4-9-3-3 設備見学······································································································ 115
あとがき···········································································································120
別添·················································································································122
参考文献リスト··································································································124

          その193に続く                     以上

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